Standards make a big difference in every aspect of modern life. Case in point? Look closely at the drinking water you take for granted each day. If the company that designed your water filter didn’t take standards seriously, your health could be in jeopardy.
That’s why Multipure designs and manufactures our water filters with the integrity that comes from rigorous standards and formal third-party certifications. Multipure filters focus on the fine-detail technologies of carbon filters to deliver better-tasting and more healthful water. We offer a diverse selection of filter products that can filter out bacteria, eliminate water waste, remove odors, and ultimately improve the taste. And one of the keys to it all is standards. To be more specific: NSF water treatment device standards.
Some consumers are surprised by the level of engineering that goes into water filtration, given the deceptive simplicity of water, but that engineering is necessary for the exceptional filtration performance we demand for our consumers. And to better serve our consumers, it is our goal to explain the essential technologies of water filtration, without the scientific jargon and acronyms that can cause confusion.
To begin, we will explore the formal certifications for water filters.
1. What Are NSF Certifications for Water Filters?
NSF International is widely recognized as “The Public Health and Safety Organization.” Its purpose is to ensure that products perform as their manufacturers claim. The NSF mark can be found on the packaging of products that have been tested and certified by the organization — status sellers and buyers seek out specifically.
NSF is a nonprofit organization that dates back to 1944. Its first project was to implement cleanliness standards for soda fountains. It started as the National Sanitation Federation, but after expanding to test all types of products including health, beauty, cooking, cleaning, food safety, environmental and others, it became globally recognized as “NSF” and changed its name officially.
Its role in water filtration products goes beyond performance testing to include determining standards and performing extensive consumer education. Today it ensures marketed filters remove what they say they will. For example, if a manufacturer claims a filter removes bacteria, NSF tests it to make sure it does. If a filter box says it can remove, lead or arsenic, that filter is tested to make sure it delivers as promised.
2. What Are the First Steps in Selecting a Water Treatment System?
The first step to choosing the right system for your home or business is to know what’s in your water, and whether it is supplied by a public entity or a private well. It is fairly easy to ascertain what’s in your water:
- Request or review a copy of the annual water quality report. Any water-supply and distribution operation should have it on file. The report shows which additives and compounds are in the water as well as how much of each.
- Has the water been tested at an independent laboratory? Water conservation districts, county land departments, private entities and sometimes universities offer water analysis services with choices for how exhaustive you want the analysis to be.
The results of the water test will point you toward an appropriate choice of filter. Given how connected the global water table is, your filter choice will have to contend with a variety of potential contaminants:
- Microbiological material
- Minerals such as iron
- Particulate matter (dirt, sand, etc.)
- Polychlorinated biphenyls (industrial chemicals)
- Radioactive material
While this is only a partial list of contaminants, water filtration is classified by the specific types of contaminants treated by the product: aesthetic, heath, emerging, and microbiological. For example, if only the taste or odor of water needs improvement, that is an example of aesthetic filtering.
You will also see point-of-use (POU), whole-house, or point-of-entry (POE) filter options. Point-of-use includes water bottles, pitchers, and drinking water taps that are separate from the regular tap. Whole-house filters intercept and treat the water at its entry point into a home or building before it gets used for anything. Point-of-use filters treat the water just before it’s consumed, as refrigerator-mounted filters do.
3. How Are NSF Water Filter Standards Developed?
NSF standards benefit consumers because of their basic protections and because they enable consumers to zero-in on solutions to their problem. The situations range from serious health concerns to an annoying smell or odd taste. The NSF certification gives users confidence in the protection they’re purchasing for their family and that the filter does what it says it will.
When a consumer sees “NSF/ANSI” followed by a number, it signifies that the product has been certified. The number corresponds to the category of filtration performance it will achieve. “ANSI” refers to the American National Standards Institute, an organization that has helped developed standards in many industries since 1918.
NSF and ANSI have many checks and balances in place to maintain objectivity and transparency. They develop the standards for filters and other drinking water products by consulting and reaching consensus with a diverse group of members from many sectors of society:
- Environmental associations
- Government entities
- Industry representatives
- Private citizens
- Public health officials
4. What is the Difference Between “NSF Certified” and “Certified to NSF Standards”?
When comparing water treatment technologies and products, Rule #1 is to make sure the product is NSF-certified. It is not enough to simply acknowledge the NSF certification; to ensure you are getting the best system, you need to go a step further. Why is this important? Because NSF certification provides an unbiased, independent, third-party guarantee that something performs according to its claims. Consumers can be confident that a product works as stated when it is certified by NSF International, the premier independent certification organization for drinking water treatment in the world. Certification allows for an “apples-to-apples” comparison with other drinking water systems, because all NSF-certified systems have undergone the same rigorous and comprehensive testing.
Fortunately, making sure a product is NSF-certified is easy: simply check to see if they have the NSF certification seal on the product packaging, and then go to the NSF website (www.nsf.org) to double-check that the specific product by that manufacturer is currently certified.
Now, let us look at phrases all-too-often used by companies to falsely bolster product performance claims: “certified to NSF standards” or “tested according to NSF standards.” At a glance, this may appear to be the same thing as NSF-certified; after all, the product is certified to the same standards, right? Remember, though, that details matter when it comes to NSF certification. A company’s internal laboratory will not be unbiased and independent. Other independent laboratories will not follow the same stringent, multiphase testing and certification protocols performed by NSF International.
Think about all the unanswered questions with the phrase, “certified to NSF standards”: Who performed the product testing? Was the laboratory certified? Were the tests performed in-house by the company? Who certified the test results? What were the testing processes? Were the tests performed on a brand new filter and at the filter’s end-of-life? Was the quality of the parts and housing tested? What amount of contaminant was added to the water? How often were the tests performed? How many gallons of water were tested?
“Certified to NSF standards” or “tested according to NSF standards” does not rule out internal, manufacturer-controlled testing, whose results cannot be guaranteed to be impartial and unbiased. Nor does it ensure that the product performance was actually tested for the entire life of the filter – some companies only test the water for a few gallons, and base their performance claims off of that limited data.
True NSF testing and certification involves multiple stages and criteria; for drinking water treatment systems, the main testing criteria are designed to verify that:
- The contaminant reduction claims are true from the first to the last drop of water.
- The housing, parts, and filter do not leach anything harmful into the water.
- The system is structurally sound.
- The product labeling, advertising, and literature are accurate and are not misleading.
- The materials and production process have not changed, allowing for consistent product quality over time.
NSF certification testing does not just check the product submitted to them for testing. NSF goes further by conducting unannounced manufacturing inspections: NSF inspectors enter the manufacturing plant and take product and literature off of the manufacturing and assembly lines to ensure that the item submitted for testing is the same as the product being sold. In addition, NSF also purchases product for sale – either in a storefront or online, again to ensure that the product sold and the included literature are in compliance and match the products and literature submitted for testing and produced at the manufacturing plant.
When a company or product uses the phrases “certified to NSF standards” or “tested according to NSF standards,” they are attempting to use the power and integrity of true NSF certification to bolster the reputation of their products without having to go through the rigorous certification process. It is a shortcut that uses wordplay to convince consumers that an unproven product is just as good as tested and certified products.
5. What Is the NSF/ANSI Standard 53 Certification?
An NSF Std. 53 water filter certification is a nationally recognized minimum standard for point-of-use and point-of-entry filtration systems. The standard guarantees that with proper use, the filter will remove listed contaminants that may threaten human health. Many of the toxins potentially present in private and public water supplies can make us sick:
- Cryptosporidium (a microscopic parasite)
- Disinfection byproducts (DBPs)
- Giardia (a single-celled microscopic parasite)
- MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether)
- Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
NSF analyzes the integrity of the water treatment system in a few different ways. They examine its material safety, analyze structural integrity, and make sure the product lives up to its claims. NSF states in its description that the most common technology used for achieving this standard is carbon filtration.
Many people worry about their health and how their drinking water affects it. They want to know it’s free of lead and arsenic — especially with high-profile news stories spotlighting bad conditions. City pipes get old, contamination leaks from former industrial sites and materials get spilled. There are many ways undesirable substances reach groundwater and local drinking water supplies, but many of those events are beyond control. What people can control instead is the filter their water passes through before they drink it.
6. How Does the NSF/ANSI Standard 401 Certification Work?
An NSF Std. 401 water filter certification focuses on what they classify as “emerging compounds and incidental contaminants.” This consists of a long list of materials of growing public concern — particularly pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and insecticides. There is an especially growing public concern with water contaminated with prescription drugs. Whether passed through the body, flushed, or simply thrown away, prescription drugs can make their way into landfills or dissolve and leak into the ground.
Contamination in the water from prescription drugs and over-the-counter medication, as well as farm and garden products, is incidental but concerning. The Std. 401 water filter brings the carbon technology needed to remove these potentially harmful contaminants.
Some of the medications that can make their way into our water include:
- Atenolol (beta-blocker)
- Bisphenol A (BPA — a compound used as a plasticizing agent)
- Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant and mood stabilizer)
- Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET — a pesticide)
- Estrone (birth control)
- Ibuprofen (pain-reliever)
- Linuron (herbicide)
- Meprobamate (compound in anti-anxiety drugs)
- Metolachlor (herbicide)
- Naproxen (a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory)
- Nonyl phenol (compounds used in commercial detergents)
- Phenytoin (anti-epileptic)
- Tris 1 chloro-2-propyl phosphate (TCPP — a flame-retardant compound)
- Tris 2 chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP — a compound used in various polymers)
- Trimethoprim (antibiotic)
7. What Are the Benefits of an NSF/ANSI P231 Certification?
The NSF/ANSI Protocol P231 verifies that microbiological elements including bacteria, viruses, and other waterborne pathogens are treated or removed. It meets standards set forth by NSF and the Environmental Protection Agency.
This type of water filtration is frequently used in institutional settings such as prisons, mental health facilities and sometimes schools. It is also commonly found in places where food is handled or processed, including restaurants and commercial kitchens.
While the NSF testing standard is even more stringent than the EPA’s requirements, both entities test with and for worst-case scenarios such as water laden with microorganisms. The filters are not tested for their effectiveness in removing chemicals, but they do remove pathogens as claimed.
Beware of filters that claim to have this ability, but which are not tested and independently verified. Not all manufacturers voluntarily subject their filters to the rigors of testing, but savvy buyers know about and look for the marks that signify peace of mind.
The protocols of NSF P231 were further adjusted to produce the P248 certification, which mimics military-grade water purification. This grade of purifier eliminates pathogens and is tested using worst-case-scenario water.
8. How Is an NSF P231-certified Water Filter Tested?
Just as manufacturers can choose to voluntarily test their products, they can also specify the rigorousness of those tests. For example, the full field of testing for a P231 certification includes 10 days: half with challenges by tap water and the other half with challenges by natural water sources.
The worst-case water might contain mixtures of organic matter and dirt, all subjected to extreme temperatures. Beyond that, the certification testing includes challenging the filter at the end of its life to be sure it’s still delivering results right up until it reaches capacity. Even after you see a mark of certification, you can still ask if the filter is put through the full series of testing or a partial series.
9. What Does NSF/ANSI Standard 42 Certification Mean?
The NSF/ANSI Std. 42 Certification is known for its ability to remedy the aesthetic side effects of water, such as slight or strong odors from sulfur, iron, or chlorine. Water can become discolored due to minerals in it, and many people like to filter out the chlorine used to treat public water systems. Many other factors can cause an odd taste in water that people wish to eliminate.
This type of filter would be used to remove particulates such as sand, but it does not eliminate the kind of pathogenic microorganisms that are typically present in, say, backcountry water. Carbon filters are most often used for this kind of treatment and the certification testing for NSF 42 uses tap water.
10. Carbon Does the Job of Filtration?
Yes! In fact, the use of carbon to filter water dates back to ancient times. Properly formulated carbon is effective, safe, plentiful and affordable, making it a popular choice.
Another respected authority on healthy water — the Water Quality Association — also certifies carbon-based filtration systems for the effective reduction of contaminants. WQA also certifies the activated carbon according to NSF/ANSI standards for 100 kinds of systems, both point-of-use and point-of-entry.
Professional Partners Make a Difference
Multipure offers expert knowledge of the certifications, standards, testing, review and usage regarding carbon water filtration systems. We like to share that knowledge and help people make informed decisions. The decision on a water filtration or treatment system can affect a family’s health and quality of life. In some settings, it can mean the difference between illness and wellness. Shop our line of water filtration products today including the Aqualuxe, Aquaperform, Aquaversa, and Aquamini.
Don’t hesitate, contact your local Multipure Independent Builder to discuss your filtration needs.