In recycling processes, wastewater has higher levels of salts and organic contaminants than freshwater sources, thus presenting a challenge to both ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) systems. For coal-to-chemical wastewater reuse, high levels of organics in the feedwater will result in membrane fouling for UF and RO systems, as seen by deterioration of membrane flux or trans-membrane pressure increase (for the UF system) or system differential pressure increase (for the RO system) over time.
To recover performance, the UF and RO systems must receive frequent cleaning via clean-in-place (CIP) processes to remove foulant.
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